Neoplastic diseases are the second most frequent reason for hospitalisation as well as cause of death in Poland. Compared with the EU average, Poland sees low incidence of, but high mortality from neoplasms. More than half of new cases of cancer are reported in people aged over 60 years. Nevertheless, the morbidity among the working age people has been increasing year on year. For instance, in 2010 the number of new cases in men aged 35-39 rose by nearly 10%, compared with 2009.
The most frequent type of neoplasm for the whole population in Poland is bronchus and lung cancer, though the incidence of this neoplasm has been decreasing for 15 years. This type of neoplasm is the first most frequent in men and second in women. An increase in the incidence of this cancer in females has been observed as women born between 1940 and 1960, many of whom used to be or still are smokers, are now entering the age bracket at the greatest risk of cancer. Although the number of new cases of breast cancer fell in 2010, in a group of women aged 45-64 years this tumour accounted for almost half of deaths from malignant neoplasms.